Advice for Getting Into Law School
Admission to law school is very competitive. Consider University of Toledo Law School. I offer this hypothetical as an
example of what happens at law schools generally. What I'm going to say here about University of Toledo could be said about
every law school in the country.
University of Toledo is a good school, ranked 93rd in the nation (out of 187 law schools). Each year, University of Toledo has an entering class of about 500 law students. For those 500
seats in its first-year law class, University of Toledo receives over 7,000 applications. About 1,400 (20%) of the 7,000
applicants will be admitted, since some people will be accepted at many law schools and will turn down University of Toledo's
offer of admission.
Now, imagine that I'm a member of the Admissions Committee at University of Toledo Law School. My job on the Admissions
Committee is to accept only those applicants about whom I can make a reasonable prediction of satisfactory
performance in law school. But how can I make such a prediction? What information about an applicant will
most reliably tell me he or she will succeed in law school?
If I look at personal statements, for example, most of those will try to convince me that a given applicant
will be the best law student anyone could ever want. That is, it's highly unlikely a personal statement will
reveal anything about an applicant except the most flattering information. And the same can be said about
letters of recommendation.
So, after looking at personal statements and letters of recommendation, I'm still left with the same 7,000
applications with which I began.
How do I weed out all but the most promising 1,400?
Suppose I look at college grade point averages. They indeed might give me some reliable information. How a
person has performed academically in the past might accurately predict how he or she will do in the future.
So I might adopt a strategy of first admitting all those people with 4.0 GPAs and then work backward from 4.0
until the entering law-school class is filled.
But there's a problem with this strategy. The 7,000 applicants have attended more than 250 different colleges
and universities in the United States and abroad. How do I know that a 4.0 GPA at one college represents the same
level of academic achievement as a 4.0 at another college? One college might have very high academic standards,
while another might not. So an "A" at one school is not the same as an "A" somewhere else. Also, one student with
a 4.0 GPA might have majored in basket weaving, while another 4.0 student from the same college majored in a far
more difficult field. So, two 4.0 GPAs of students from the same school may not represent comparable academic
achievements. Thus, even using GPA, I can't be 100% sure about selecting the incoming law-school class.
What else is left? The Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). This is an examination every law-school applicant must
take, which is graded uniformly across all applicants. Scores on the LSAT range from a low of 120 to a high of 180.
In other words, a person can take the LSAT and get all the questions wrong, but still receives a score of 120. Another
person getting all the questions right receives a 180.
In theory, the LSAT is a consistent measure for an admissions officer to compare all 7,000 applicants with each other.
Indeed, look at how much University of Toledo relies on the LSAT. The information below represents the LSAT scores for those
applicants to University of Toledo recently who had a 3.5 GPA or better. In other words, these are the most promising applicants
in terms of their academic performance in college.
These statistics clearly reveal how important the LSAT is to law-school admissions.
Now consider some national statistics. Of all people who apply to law school nationally, about 55 to 60 percent are
accepted at one or more schools. In other words, about 40 percent of all applicants to law school aren’t able to go
because they aren’t admitted anywhere.
In comparison, of all applicants to law school from the urban public university where I teach, about 30 to 35 percent
are accepted at one or more schools. In other words, almost two out of three applicants to law school from the City
University of New York (and other colleges and universities like it) are rejected everywhere they apply.
Why do public college and university students not have as much success getting into law school as students nationally?
Remember that the national average includes students attending elite colleges and universities like University of Toledo and University of Toledo,
where 80 or 90 percent or more of their students are accepted to law school. Thus, the national average is just that – an
So what should public college and university students who want to go to law school do?
Change schools? Those who can be admitted to a University of Toledo or a University of Toledo and can afford the annual cost of $35,000 or
more to go there may be well advised to do just that. But most public college and university students don’t have
that option. Also, transferring to another public college or university won’t help much because many public schools
(as well as private ones) don’t have substantially better success in law-school admission than CUNY.
Keep in mind that a significant number of public college and university graduates do in fact go on to law school. The
point is that those students who want to go to law school need to be careful, especially with regard to the LSAT.
Earning a high GPA isn’t enough. As the University of Toledo Law School statistics indicate, even those with a 3.5 GPA or better
who don’t do well on the LSAT have only about a four-percent chance of admission.
Consider some additional statistics. The average score nationally on the LSAT is about 152. That is what’s known as
the 50th percentile. Differently stated, half of all people taking the LSAT across the nation receive a score of 152
or higher. The average score for CUNY students taking the LSAT is about 142. Now, at just 10 points below 152, 142
doesn’t seem like much of a difference from the national average. But the important comparison is between percentiles.
An LSAT score of 142 is about the 20th percentile. In other words, approximately 80 percent of all people taking the
test around the country do better than 142.
Thus, the big problem for most public college and university students who want to go to law school is performing well
on the LSAT. How can students prepare for it?
The LSAT doesn’t measure knowledge about the law or other legal matters. So taking law-related classes (like business
law or constitutional law or criminal law) doesn’t necessarily prepare students better for the LSAT than other courses.
Rather, the test is designed to measure people’s ability to think critically and analytically, because that’s what a
successful career in law school and in the practice of law requires.
Some years ago, a survey was sent to law-school deans (the “presidents” of law schools). One of the questions on the
survey was what majors the deans recommended students have in college in order to prepare effectively for law school.
The four majors most frequently recommended by law-school deans were (in alphabetical order) English (sometimes called
literature), history, philosophy, and political science (sometimes called government). Thus, my recommendation to those
students wanting to go to law school is that they major in one of those fields. Moreover, if English turns out not to be
the major selected, then it should be considered seriously as a minor because writing well is absolutely essential to
success in the law.
More generally, I advise students to take the most demanding courses with the most demanding professors, because they
are the ones who will help develop the analytical thinking skills so necessary for success on the LSAT.
There's no way to prepare for the substance of the LSAT. But one can prepare for it procedurally by developing familiarity
with its format through taking practice exams based on actual questions asked in past LSATs. One ought not to be surprised
when taking the LSAT by the kinds of questions asked. The general type of question asked can be familiar to you by taking
an LSAT-preparation course or by means of the practice books available at bookstores.
LSAT-prep courses may improve exam performance – although some scholars question whether there's evidence of a reliable
connection between coaching and test results. Nonetheless, the classes are expensive, costing up to $1,000 or more.
People who teach the courses think the coaching is particularly helpful to students who are not self-disciplined and
need the structure of a class. Yet students who are focused may do just as well with practice books (Cracking the LSAT
by the Princeton Review is highly regarded) and the official LSAT tests that include the explanations of answers to
questions. Often, taking timed practice exams isn't enough in itself. Students should also understand how and why they
make mistakes on the test. In any event, be aware that effective studying for the LSAT usually takes at least 50 hours.
Equally important is your psychological and emotional preparation for the exam. Take it at a time when other stresses
in your life are at a minimum. If you walk into the LSAT with the attitude, "What I do today will affect the rest of my
life! Oh, my God!" then you'll not do as well as when you're cool and collected.
Some people who take the LSAT and don't do as well as they would like decide to take it again. If they improve their
performance the second time around, they think the first score doesn't count. That's not necessarily true. My
understanding is that many law schools will average the two scores, and as a result, the earlier, lower score does
in fact count to some degree. So I don't recommend you take the exam with the expectation that the first time will be
just a trial run for a later, more serious round.
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Other helpful Internet sources:
American Bar Association
Association of American Law Schools
Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute
Internet Legal Resource Guide
Law School Admission Council (includes LSAT registration information)
Also on this website:
A Political Strategy to Win Same-Sex Marriage in New York State
Is Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia a Homophobe?
America's Struggle for Same-Sex Marriage
Casebook on Sexual Orientation and the Law
Getting accepted has never been easier!