How to become a Lawyer
To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar,
under rules established by the jurisdiction’s highest court. All States require that applicants for admission to the
bar pass a written bar examination; most States also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination.
Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one State occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without
taking an examination if they meet the latter jurisdiction’s standards of good moral character and a specified period
of legal experience. In most cases, however, lawyers must pass the bar examination in each State in which they plan to
practice. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before or in them.
To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant usually must earn a college degree and graduate from a
law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. ABA accreditation signifies
that the law school—particularly its library and faculty—meets certain standards developed to promote quality legal
education. As of 2005, there were 191 ABA-accredited law schools; others were approved by State authorities only.
With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination
and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California.
In 2005, seven States—California, Maine, New York, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming—accepted the study of law in
a law office as qualification for taking the bar examination; three jurisdictions—California, the District of Columbia,
and New Mexico—now accept the study of law by correspondence. Several States require registration and approval of
students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before the students enter law school or during their early years
of legal study.
Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 48 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the overall bar
examination; the MBE is not required in Louisiana or Washington. The MBE covers a broad range of issues, and sometimes a
locally prepared State bar examination is given in addition to it. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is
used as part of the bar examination in several States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores.
Many States also require Multistate Performance Testing (MPT) to test the practical skills of beginning lawyers.
Requirements vary by State, although the test usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam and is a one-time
The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of
undergraduate study, followed by 3 years of law school. Law school applicants must have a bachelor’s degree to qualify
for admission. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or
part-time divisions, which usually require 4 years of study; about 1 in 10 graduates from ABA-approved schools
attended part time.
Although there is no recommended “prelaw” major, prospective lawyers should develop proficiency in writing and
speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and thinking logically—skills needed to succeed both in law school
and in the profession. Regardless of major, a multidisciplinary background is recommended. Courses in English,
foreign languages, public speaking, government, philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science,
among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful.
For example, prospective patent lawyers need a strong background in engineering or science, and future tax
lawyers must have extensive knowledge of accounting.
Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant’s ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law,
usually through good undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant’s
undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes, a personal interview. However, law schools vary
in the weight they place on each of these and other factors.
All law schools approved by the ABA require applicants to take the LSAT. Nearly all law schools require applicants
to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service, which then submits the applicants’ LSAT
scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. Both this service and
the LSAT are administered by the Law School Admission Council. Competition for admission to many law schools—especially
the most prestigious ones—generally is intense, with the number of applicants greatly exceeding the number that can be
During the first year or year and a half of law school, students usually study core courses, such as constitutional
law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect
specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporate law. Law students often acquire practical experience
by participating in school-sponsored legal clinic activities; in the school’s moot court competitions, in which
students conduct appellate arguments; in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges;
and through research and writing on legal issues for the school’s law journal.
A number of law schools have clinical programs in which students gain legal experience through practice trials and
projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might
include work in legal aid clinics, for example, or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time or summer
clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide valuable experience.
Such training can lead directly to a job after graduation and can help students decide what kind of practice best
suits them. Clerkships also may be an important source of financial aid.
In 2004, law school graduates in 52 jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility
Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct.
In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics.
Law school graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) as the first professional degree. Advanced law degrees
may be desirable for those planning to specialize, research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs,
which usually require an additional semester or year of study. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas,
including law and business administration or public administration.
After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practices.
Currently, 40 States and jurisdictions mandate continuing legal education (CLE). Many law schools and State and
local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments.
Some States allow CLE credits to be obtained through participation in seminars on the Internet.
The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Individuals planning careers in law should like to
work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public.
Perseverance, creativity, and reasoning ability also are essential to lawyers, who often analyze complex cases
and handle new and unique legal problems.
Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually start as associates
and work with more experienced lawyers or judges. After several years of gaining more responsibilities, some
lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm or go into practice for themselves. Some experienced lawyers
are nominated or elected to judgeships. Others become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing
number of these lawyers have advanced degrees in other fields as well.
Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or managerial positions in various departments of
large corporations. A transfer from a corporation’s legal department to another department often is viewed as a
way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management.
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for students like you everyday. There is a law school for everybody, even if you have low grades and test scores.
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